A post-secondary program (graduate or undergraduate) that leads to an academic degree, diploma or certificate. Academic programs are often delivered by universities, colleges, CEGEPs, seminaries and institutes of technology.
Accompanying family member
Related: Non-accompanying family member
A family member who is immigrating to Canada with a principal applicant and is included on an application for permanent residence. The dependent family member must be a:
Acknowledgement of receipt (AOR)
A document issued by Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to applicants confirming that their application has been received. An acknowledgement of receipt letter or email is sent to an applicant after their application has been checked for completeness.
A selection factor used to determine a skilled worker applicant's ability to become economically established in Canada. A maximum of 10 points can be awarded to an applicant and/or their accompanying spouse or common-law partner for:
Application for Leave and Judicial Review
Individuals who have received a decision made by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) which they believe was made in error can appeal by applying to the Federal Court of Canada to review the decision. Challenging a decision made by IRCC through the Court is referred to as an Application for Leave and Judicial Review. If the Court has determined that IRCC has made an error following the review, IRCC will then have to make a new decision.
Arranged employment in Canada
Arranged employment means that a Canadian employer has offered you a valid job offer of paid, full-time, continuous employment for at least one year in an occupation classified as Skill Type/Level 0, A or B of the National Occupational Classification (NOC) system. In some cases, the job offer must be approved by Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC).
Authorization to Return to Canada (ARC)
An Authorization to Return to Canada (ARC) is needed by an individual who wishes to return to Canada after being subject to a removal order from Canada. Whether you need an ARC will depend on the type of removal order:
A procedure that allows a Canadian immigration officer to verify an applicant's admissibility to Canada.
Biometric Instruction Letter (BIL)
A letter sent either by mail or through the account of an applicant who needs to provide biometrics when they apply. Applicants must have a copy of the BIL when they go in person to a visa application centre (VAC) or application support centre (ASC) to give their biometrics.
Bridging Open Work Permit (BOWP)
Allows individuals to continue working in Canada while they wait for the results of their application for permanent residence. To be eligible for a Bridging Open Work Permit (BOWP), you must:
Someone who comes to Canada for international business or trade without directly entering the Canadian labour market. Business visitors must prove that their main source of income and place of employment are outside Canada.
An activity or organization in Canada that generates revenue for profit and is subject to the laws of a Canadian province or territory.
A person who was born in Canada (or outside of Canada to a Canadian citizen who were themselves born in Canada or granted Canadian citizenship) or who has been granted Canadian citizenship.
Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program (CELPIP)
A standardized English language test used by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to measure a candidate's listening, speaking, reading and writing ability in English. There are two versions of the test available: The CELPIP General and the CELPIP General-LS. For the purposes of Canadian immigration, only the "CELPIP General" version of the test is accepted.
One of the three federal immigration programs managed by the Express Entry system. The CEC is a pathway for temporary foreign workers and graduates with Canadian work experience who wish to settle in Canada permanently and who are able to meet the program's minimum requirements for work experience and language ability.
Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB)
A system used to describe, measure and recognize English language ability according to Canadian standards for the purposes of living, working or applying for citizenship in Canada.
A copy of an original document that has been certified as a legitimate true copy of the original by an authorized issuer or authority, such as a notary public, commissioner of oaths, commissioner of taking affidavits or an authority of the country or territory that issued the document
Citizenship and Immigration consultant
A person who advises and provides support to individuals on Canadian immigration and citizenship matters, usually for a fee. Consultants can be paid or unpaid and may act on the behalf of an individual when dealing with Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). They do not however work for the Canadian government and must be authorized to represent individuals according to Canada's established immigration and citizenship laws.
A person who is in a conjugal (marriage-like) relationship and has been living with their partner for a period of at least 12 consecutive months.
An organization that sponsors refugees to Canada. These organizations do not have to be incorporated under federal or provincial law, but must be a legal entity.
The Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) is a points-based system used by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to score and rank the profiles of candidates in the Express Entry immigration pool. Candidates who have submitted an Express Entry profile are assigned a CRS score out of 1,200 points based on the details of their profile.
Computer Assisted Immigration Processing System (CAIPS)
A computer system used by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to process and keep records of visa applications.
Confirmation of permanent residence number (IMM 5292 or 5509)
A confirmation of permanent residence (COPR) is a document issued to new Canadian permanent residents by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). The COPR number begins with a "T" followed by nine numbers (i.e. T123456789).
A person outside Canada who is in a marriage-like relationship with a sponsor for at least a year but was prevented from being eligible as a spouse or common-law partner due to exceptional circumstances beyond their control, such as religion or sexual discrimination.
When an individual is not allowed to enter Canada because they have committed or been convicted of a crime and have not been pardoned or rehabilitated under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA). Dangerous driving, theft or murder are examples of crimes that would result in someone being deemed criminally inadmissible.
A process that allows individuals with a criminal record outside Canada to enter or stay in Canada. Under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), individuals may become "rehabilitated" based on factors such as the type of crime that was committed, how long ago it was committed and how the individual has behaved since committing the crime. An individual can apply for rehabilitation if at least 5 years have passed since the crime was committed .
CRS cut-off score
The CRS cut-off refers to the lowest CRS score an Express Entry candidate must have to receive an invitation to apply during an Express Entry draw.
An official letter sent by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to applicants advising them on a decision made on their case and what to do next.
A person who is inadmissible to Canada because they have committed or been convicted of a crime outside Canada may still be allowed to enter Canada after 5 or 10 years (except cases of serious criminality) if they are deemed rehabilitated. A person can be deemed rehabilitated based on several factors, such as the nature of the crime, how long ago it was committed and how the individual has behaved since committing the crime.
A removal order issued to individuals who have violated Canada's immigration law, requiring them to leave Canada within 30 days. It is issued by either a Canada Border Service Agency (CBSA) officer or the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB). If the individual does not leave Canada within 30 days, the departure order becomes a deportation order and the individual would be required to apply for an Authorization to Return to Canada (ARC).
A removal order issued to individuals who have committed a serious violation of Canada's immigration law. An individual who has been deported is unable to return to Canada without applying for an Authorization to Return to Canada (ARC).
Designated Angel Investor Group
A designated organization that has been approved by the Minister to support or invest in start-ups through the Start-up Visa Program. The investment is usually made in exchange for equity in the start-up.
Designated learning institution (DLI)
A school that has been approved by a provincial or territorial government to accept international students. Prospective students must obtain a letter of acceptance from a DLI before they can apply for a study permit.
When a foreign national who has applied for permanent residence in Canada also applies to enter Canada on a temporary basis as a visitor, student or worker. Dual intent (having two intents: permanent and temporary) is legitimate and does not impede a foreign national's chances of being accepted as a temporary resident.
A category of economic immigration designed to help boost Canada's population growth and labour force by attracting foreign nationals who wish to settle in Canada permanently based on their skills and experience. Economic immigrants include candidates (and their spouse or common-law partner and dependents) applying through:
Educational Credential Assessment (ECA)
A report issued by an organization designed by the Minister to verify that a foreign degree, diploma or credential is valid and equal to a Canadian one.
Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA)
An entry requirement for visa-exempt foreign nationals travelling to Canada by air. An eTA is electronically linked to your passport and is valid for a period of 5 years or until your passport expires, whichever occurs first. A valid eTA allows the traveler to enter Canada for short stays (typically for up to 6 months at a time).
An electronic health processing system used by clinic staff and medical professionals to record and submit Immigration Medical Exams (IMEs) to Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC).
Employer-specific work permit
A type of work permit that allows individuals to work in Canada based on specific conditions, such as:
When an individual's medical condition is projected to place a demand on Canada's health and social services resulting in:
An immigration officer may deny an individual entry into Canada on the grounds of excessive demand.
A removal order issued to individuals by either a Canada Border Service Agency (CBSA) officer or the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB). Individuals who have received an exclusion order are not allowed to return to Canada for one year without applying for an Authorization to Return to Canada (ARC). Individuals who have received an exclusion order on the grounds of misrepresentation are not allowed to return to Canada for at least 5 years without an ARC.
An online immigration application management system used by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to process applications from skilled workers under the following economic immigration programs:
Related: invitation round
Roughly every two weeks, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) selects candidates from the Express Entry pool and invites them to apply for Canadian permanent residence. This selection process is referred to as an invitation round, or draw.
Express Entry pool
Candidates who meet the requirements of one of the programs managed by Express Entry are able to submit their profile into what is referred to as the Express Entry pool of candidates. The profiles of candidates in the pool are then ranked against one another using the Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS).
Express Entry profile
Candidates who meet the requirements of one of the programs managed by Express Entry make an expression of interest by creating a self-declared profile that includes information about their skills, education, work experience, language ability and other personal information.
A category of Canadian immigration that allows citizens of permanent residents of Canada to sponsor eligible family members to come to Canada.
One of the three federal immigration programs managed by the Express Entry system. The FSTP is a pathway for skilled tradespeople who wish to settle in Canada permanently and who are able to meet the program's minimum requirements for work experience, language ability, and having a valid job offer or certificate of qualification for their skilled trade.
Federal skilled worker
A federal skilled worker is a professional who is selected for Canadian permanent residence through the Express Entry system because of their education, work experience, English and/or French language ability, and several other factors that can help them succeed in Canada. The province of Quebec has its own pathway for skilled workers that isn't managed through Express Entry or a Provincial Nominee Program (PNP).
One of the three federal immigration programs managed by the Express Entry system. The FSWP is a pathway for skilled workers with foreign work experience who wish to settle in Canada permanently and who are able to meet the program's minimum requirements for skilled work experience, education and language ability. Skilled workers must also score at least 67 points on the program's 100-point grid.
Foreign Credential Recognition (FCR)
A process that involves verifying that foreign education and work experience are recognized by and equal to established standards for Canadian professionals. Provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada are responsible for conducting this assessment.
A person who is not a Canadian citizen or permanent resident.
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
A treaty of the World Trade Organization that ensures that all signatories are treated equitably when accessing foreign markets, giving some foreign businesses easier access to Canada.
Related: Program-specific draw
Refers to a type of Express Entry draw that selects candidates for any of the federal economic immigration programs managed by Express Entry (CEC, FSWP, FSTP) based on their CRS score.
Refers to an application that hasn't been updated yet but shows as updated on Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC)'s website. A ghost update may be an indication that your application is ready to progress to the next stage.
Given name(s) and family name(s)
A "given name" is the name that a person is given at birth and that people call them by. Given name(s) include a person's first and middle name(s).
A "family name" is the surname used to indicate a person's family, tribe or community.
Global Case Management System (GCMS)
An electronic data management system used by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to process citizenship and immigration applications both internally and worldwide.
A document that allows an individual to access health care services in a Canadian province or territory. Newcomers to Canada can obtain a health card within four to six weeks of arriving.
Canada has a publicly funded health care system that pays for essential services provided by medical practitioners and hospitals. Newcomers to Canada must apply for health insurance from their province or territory.
Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB)
An independent tribunal established by the Parliament of Canada responsible for making decisions on immigration and refugee matters. The IRB decides on, among other things, who needs refugee protection.
Immigration Medical Examination (IME)
An immigration medical exam is required of all Canadian permanent residence applicants, including the applicant's family member(s) even if they are not accompanying. Only doctors on the approved list of panel physicians can administer the exam. The final decision on an applicant's medical exam is then made exclusively at the discretion of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC).
An officer responsible for examining citizenship, immigration and visa applications and charged with determining an applicant's eligibility for entering or staying in Canada.
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC)
The department of the Government of Canada responsible for handling matters dealing with citizenship, immigration and refugees in Canada. IRCC manages the arrival of newcomers, provides protection to refugees, grants citizenship and assists with settlement in Canada.
Refers to the way in which a non-citizen is present in Canada, such as a temporary or permanent resident according to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA).
Known as "Maintained status". When a temporary resident in Canada applies to extend the period of time for their authorized stay before their status expires, they retain their legal status until a decision is made on their application.
When a person is not allowed to enter or stay in Canada for reasons including criminality, being a security risk, health or financial problems, and failing to comply with Canada's immigration laws.
Refers to the occupation that you are qualified for and intend to work in while in Canada at the time of your application.
International English Language Testing System (IELTS)
A standardized English language proficiency test for higher education and global immigration. An individual's English language proficiency is measured across four factors:
There are two versions of the test available: The IELTS Academic and the IELTS General Training. For the purposes of Canadian immigration, only the "General" version of the test is accepted.
International Experience Canada (IEC)
Related: Working holiday visa
A program designed to allow young individuals from over 30 countries to work in Canada on a temporary basis (for up to 2 years). Interested applicants must:
Work permits issued under IEC do not require a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA). There are three different categories available through IEC:
Each pathway has a different set of requirements.
International Mobility Program
A program that allows Canadian employers to bring foreign nationals to Canada as temporary workers without needing a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA). Workers who may be eligible for this program include:
An employee who works for an international company that has a location (branch, subsidiary, or affiliate) in Canada and wishes to be transferred to Canada to work on a temporary basis.
Invitation to apply
An Invitation to Apply (ITA) is issued to candidates in the International Experience Canada (IEC) or Express Entry pools. Candidates who have received an ITA are given a limited amount of time to complete and submit an application.
Related: Express Entry draw
Also known as "draw", an invitation round is a process where Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) invites International Experience Canada (IEC) or Express Entry candidates to submit an application.
An employment website managed by Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) that provides an online database of job listings in Canada, a well as other employment services for recruiters and job seekers.
Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA)
A document that a Canadian employer may need before hiring a foreign worker. The purpose of the LMIA is to show that there is a need for hiring a foreign worker to fill a job because a Canadian worker is unable to, and that the foreign worker will not have a negative impact on the Canadian labour market. This process is verified by Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC).
Some applications require candidates to have a minimum ability in English and/or French. The level of ability required will vary depending on the type of application.
Letter of introduction
A document sent by a visa office confirming the approval of:
1. A study permit
2. A work permit
3. Extended stay for a parent or grandparent from a country that does not require visas (the Super Visa program)
This letter must be presented by the applicant when they arrive in Canada.
Low-income cut-off (LICO)
An income threshold set by the Canadian government where a family devotes a larger share of its income on necessities such as food, shelter, and clothing than the average family. A family must be above the cut-off to:
Related: Implied status
Formerly known as "Implied status". When a temporary resident (worker, visitor or student) in Canada applies to extend the period of time for their authorized stay before their temporary status expires, they retain their legal status until a decision is made on their application.
A physical examination performed by a doctor on the approved list of panel physicians and required of all immigrants and some visitors before the arrive in Canada. The purpose of the examination is to determine whether the applicant(s) would:
The final decision on an applicant's medical exam is then made exclusively at the discretion of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC).
When a person is not allowed to enter Canada due to health-related issues. A person may be considered medically inadmissible if they:
Minimum necessary income (MNI)
Related: Low-income cut-off (LICO)
Refers to the minimum income threshold required of a family wishing to:
Minimum work experience required
To be eligible for Express Entry, skilled workers are required to have at least one year of continuous, paid, full-time (or an equivalent amount in part-time) skilled work experience within the last 10 years in an occupation classified as Skill Type/Level 0, A or B under the National Occupational Classification (NOC) system.
When a person makes false statements, submits false information or false/altered documents, or withholds information relevant to an application to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). Lying on an application or in an interview is considered an offence under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) and the Citizenship Act. Misrepresentation may result in a person:
A visa that allows a person to enter and leave Canada multiple times during its validity period.
National Occupational Classification (NOC) code
Canada's national system for describing and classifying occupations in the Canadian labour market. Occupations are grouped according to their skill type and skill level:
1. Skill Level 0 (zero) - Management jobs, such as:
2. Skill Level A - Professional jobs that usually call for a degree from a university, such as:
3. Skill Level B - Technical jobs that usually call for a college diploma or training as an apprentice, such as:
4. Skill Level C - Intermediate jobs that usually call for high school and/or job-specific training, such as:
5. Skill Level D - Labour jobs that usually give on-the-job training, such as:
The NOC is used as a baseline for measuring the skill type and level of an occupation in certain immigration requirements.
A document issued by a Canadian province or territory to a person who has been nominated to apply for permanent residence through the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP).
Non-accompanying family member
Related: Accompanying family member
Family members who are dependent on the principal applicant but who are not accompanying the principal applicant to Canada. Family members in this context refers to:
Even if these family members are not accompanying the principal applicant, they must still:
Related: Regulated occupation
An occupation that does not require any special licensing, certification or registration to practice in Canada. 80% of occupations are not regulated in Canada.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
An agreement signed by Canada, Mexico and the United States that established a trilateral trade zone in North America. Under NAFTA, certain businesspeople can enter Canada more easily, such as:
Open work permit
A type of work permit that allows a person to work in any occupation, for any employer in Canada. Because an open work permit is not "job-specific", applicants will not need the following when they apply for their work permit:
You may be eligible for an open work permit if you:
A doctor approved by Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to administer an Immigration Medical Examination (IME).
The minimum number of points that skilled worker must have to be considered eligible for an immigration program that operates a points-based system. The points requirements will vary depending on the immigration program.
A travel document issued by a government that identifies the holder and allows them to travel to and from foreign countries and to access consular assistance while overseas.
Passport biographic page
The page of your passport with your name, photo, date and place of birth. For example:
A person who has successfully immigrated to and obtained legal status allowing them to stay in Canada on a permanent basis but who is not yet a Canadian citizen.
Permanent resident card
A document issued to permanent residents of Canada confirming their status and allowing them to travel to Canada. The permanent resident card serves as both an identity and travel document for permanent residents of Canada.
Physical presence requirement (citizenship)
Related: Residence requirement (citizenship)
Canadian permanent residents applying for citizenship under subsection 5(1) must be physically present in Canada for at least 1,095 days in the five years preceding the date of their application to be considered eligible for citizenship.
A document issued by the police or a government agency as the result of a background check showing:
A police certificate is used by Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to determine whether a candidate is criminally inadmissible to Canada.
Port of entry
A place where a person can gain lawful entry into Canada, such as at an airport, land or marine border crossing.
Post-graduation work permit (PGWP)
A document issued by Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to international students who have:
The PGWP is an open work permit that allows international students a chance to remain in Canada after graduation, gain valuable Canadian work experience, and better position themselves for an immigration option that leads to permanent residence (for example, under the Canadian Experience Class).
Pre-removal risk assessment (PRRA)
A process that allows a person being removed from Canada to explain why they left their country out of fear and why they cannot return. Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) uses a PRRA to determine whether a person returning to their country of origin:
If you are eligible, a Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) officer will provide you with an application form and instructions on how to proceed with a PRRA before you are removed from Canada.
Refers to the "main" applicant when a family is applying for immigration together. Accompanying family members are referred to as "dependents". In the case of a successful application, both the principal applicant and their accompanying family members obtain permanent residence.
The expected amount of time it takes to process an application for working, studying, visiting or immigration to Canada. Processing times will vary depending on the type of application submitted.
Related: General draw
Refers to a type of Express Entry draw that selects candidates for one of the federal economic immigration programs managed by Express Entry (i.e., CEC or FSTP) based on their CRS score.
Proof of citizenship
A document issued by the Government of Canada that proves a person is a Canadian citizen.
Provincial nomination certificate
Related: Nomination certificate
A document issued by a Canadian province or territory nominating a person who is immigrating to Canada for permanent residence through the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP).
A program that allows Canadian provinces and territories to nominate candidates who wish to settle in their province/territory and who are able to meet certain criteria for Canadian immigration. Every province and territory (except Quebec and Nunavut) has a PNP that is comprised of multiple “streams” (or pathways). Each of these streams targets particular groups of people based on the province or territory’s needs. For example, some streams may target international graduates, while others are focused on businesspeople or skilled workers.
Candidates in the Express Entry pool who have obtain provincial nomination are awarded a whopping 600 points under the Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS), essentially guaranteeing that they will receive an Invitation to Apply (ITA) during a subsequent Express Entry invitation round.
Québec Acceptance Certificate (CAQ)
The Québec Acceptance Certificate/Certificat d'acceptation du Québec (CAQ) is a document issued by Quebec’s Ministère de l’Immigration, de la Diversité et de l’Inclusion (MIDI) that international students are temporary workers must apply for before coming to Quebec.
Québec Selection Certificate (CSQ)
The Québec Selection Certificate/Certificat de Sélection du Québec (CSQ) is a document that indicates that a person has been selected by the province of Quebec and may proceed with their immigration application to Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC). Obtaining a CSQ does not mean you have been accepted as a permanent resident, nor does it allow you to travel to Canada.
Quebec Skilled Worker
Skilled workers who wish to immigrate to Canada and plan on living in the province of Quebec must apply directly to the government of Quebec for consideration. Quebec has its own selection criteria that targets skilled workers who are able to adapt to life in the primarily French-speaking province.
If the province of Quebec has accepted a person as an immigrant, they will issue the applicant a Québec Selection Certificate/Certificat de Sélection du Québec (CSQ), which can be used to proceed with the immigration process and submit an application to Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC).
Record of landing (IMM 1000)
An historical document that includes information on when a person became a Canadian permanent residence. The record of landing has not been issued since June 28, 2002, and is now known as a Confirmation of permanent residence (COPR).
Refugee and Humanitarian Resettlement Program
A program designed to offer protection to refugees from outside Canada. The United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), along with private sponsors, identifies refugees for resettlement.
Related: Non-regulated occupation
An occupation that is governed by a provincial, territorial or federal regulatory body requiring an individual to obtain the proper licensing, certification or registration for their occupation. 20% of occupations are regulated in Canada (i.e., health care, engineering, law).
A provincial or territorial authority responsible for setting the standards for practicing a regulated occupation.
When a Canadian immigration officers orders a person to leave Canada. There are three types of removal orders (departure, deportation and exclusion).
Renunciation of citizenship
The voluntary loss of citizenship status through a formal process. Once a judge has approved your application for renunciation, you will be sent a renunciation certificate or confirmation of renunciation.
A paid or unpaid person who has been given permission to communicate with Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) on behalf of a person applying for Canadian permanent residence or citizenship.
Paid representatives must be "authorized" to receive any type of payment, which includes:
If a representative is asking you for payment but they are not authorized as defined above, IRCC will not deal with them and your application could be refused.
Residence requirement (citizenship)
Canadian permanent residents applying for citizenship under subsection 5(1) are required to have resided in Canada for at least three years (1,095 days) in the five years preceding the date of their application.
Residence requirement (permanent residence)
Canadian permanent residents who wish to keep their status must live in Canada for at least two years (730 days) during the past five years. This time does not have to be continuous and some of your time abroad may be counted if:
Restoration of status
Visitors, workers or students who lose their status in Canada may apply to restore it provided they:
Right of permanent residence fee (RPPF)
A charge paid by the principal applicant (and their accompanying spouse or common-law partner, if applicable) of an application for Canadian permanent residence when their application is approved.
Candidates applying as federal skilled workers must score at least 67 out of 100 points on the Federal Skilled Worker points grid, which evaluates their profile across six selection factors:
A person who works independently usually as a sole proprietor or contractor. A self-employed individual applying for Canadian permanent residence must show that they intend and are able of becoming self-employed in Canada.
The recommended minimum amount of money required of applicants for permanent residence that proves they can support themselves and their dependents when they settle in Canada. These funds must be available, transferable and not committed to any debt or other obligation.
A visa that allows a person to enter and leave Canada only once during its validity period.
A professional who is selected for Canadian permanent residence because of their education, work experience, English and/or French language ability, and several other factors that can help them succeed in Canada.
Skilled work experience
Any work experience that is in an occupation classified as Skill Type/Level 0, A or B under the National Occupational Classification (NOC) system.
Related: Family Class
A Canadian citizen or permanent resident who is 18 years or older and who is legally sponsoring an eligible family member for Canadian permanent residence under the Family Class.
Related: Family Class
A person who is not a Canadian citizen or permanent resident who has an eligible Canadian sponsor, who meets the requirements of the Family Class and who has submitted an application for permanent residence under the Family Class.
A program that targets immigrant entrepreneurs who can innovate, create jobs for Canadians and compete on a global scale by establishing a business in Canada.
A document issued by Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) that allows an international student to study at a Designated learning institution (DLI) in Canada for the duration of their program of study. The study permit indicates whether a student's travel within Canada is restricted, as well as when they have to leave Canada.
Temporary Foreign Worker Program
Related: International Mobility Program
A program that allows Canadian employers to hire foreign workers on a temporary basis to fill labour shortages in Canada when no Canadians are available to do the job. Employers need to apply for a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) when applying through this program.
A person who is residing legally in Canada on a temporary basis. This includes visitors, students and foreign workers who are in Canada for a short period of time.
Temporary resident permit (TRP)
A document issued by Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) allowing a person who is otherwise inadmissible to Canada or who is unable to meet the requirements of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) to enter or remain in Canada on a temporary basis.
Also known as a "visitor visa", a TRV is a document issued by a visa office abroad showing that a person from a country that isn't "visa-exempt" has met the conditions for entering Canada as a temporary resident (i.e., a visitor, worker or student).
Test d'Évaluation du Français (TEF)
A standardized French language proficiency used to measure an individual's French language proficiency across four factors:
The cost or fee associated with studying at a private educational institution, such as a college or university.
A person without work but who is available for work and is actively seeking employment.
An academic institution that is regulated by provincial or territorial legislation that offers three types of degrees:
University studies are post-secondary and are usually available to students who have completed at least a high school level of study.
Valid job offer
Under Express Entry, a written offer of employment for work that is:
Employers requiring an LMIA must apply to Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC)/Service Canada for one.
Visa application centre (VAC)
A private company that has formal arrangements with the Canadian government and is authorized to provide services and accept applications for all temporary resident categories (visitor visas, study and work permits).
A person responsible for assessing and making decisions on temporary and permanent residence applications submitted by foreign nationals.
The informal term for a Temporary resident visa (TRV).
A document issued by Immigration, Refugees, Citizenship Canada (IRCC) that allows a foreign national to work in Canada legally. The work permit indicates:
Working holiday visa/Working Holiday Program
tools & resources
Updated: July 30, 2022